The first people who immigrated to the continent were the aborigines, and Aboriginal ( lat . “from the beginning”, “ab origine” =) called. The general terms “Aboriginal” or “Aboriginal” are from the Europeans and not used by the aborigines. In Australia we meet more the term “Indigenous People”. The various clans and tribes give names such as “Yolngu” (north), “Murri” (East), “Koori” (Southeast), “Nanga” (south), “Nyungar” (southwest), “Wonghi” (West) and many others. The Aborigines had been long before the white man discovered this country, developed its own culture and languages. Her life was well adapted to the needs of the country, their social system was well developed and their natural abilities and skills amaze even today.
More than 200 years, Europeans the existence of this primitive people is unknown and the “Terra Australis”, the supposed southern continent, not yet discovered. Up to this time the Aborigines live in peace with nature in harmony and wrap a complex culture. But after the stress of “terra nullius” (It was assumed that it was inhabited by any people) composed by Europeans for the Aborigines, the risk of extinction or complete adaptation, which promoted the white man. With the downfall of many tribes was also a large part of the culture and lost their identity and the will to live of the Aborigines. Although the conditions have now improved for these people, the Aboriginal people a still discriminates against minority in their own country.
History of Indigenous Australians
Recent findings assume that they have immigrated prior 50000-60000 years coming from Asia into Australia. During the last glacial periods was for the people of Southeast Asia the opportunity to spread to the south and to colonize the Australian continent, there was decreased significantly by the ice age, sea level and separated so that only a narrow strait, the Asian islands from the Australian continent. The rich food supply of the tropical north of Australia and the Abandoned awareness prompted the Aboriginal quickly spread across the continent, to Tasmania, which at that time was not the bass – was separated from the mainland road. Later, when the sea level due to the decaying glacial rebounding, was the ancient people in a natural way isolated and could not mix with other races.
The nomadic tribes lived in simple huts or windbreaks, which were built from twigs and bark. For long hunting spears, boomerangs and spear throwers were (Woomera) is used. The women were often made of hard wood club (Nulla Nulla) with them, which they used as a weapon. The boomerang was used in addition to hunting for battle, and as a tool for sporting competitions. We distinguish the returning and not returning boomerang (Kylie).
Their former number is estimated at 750,000 to 1.5 million. They lived (and live in a small part of today) as hunters and gatherers and moved around the country as nomads. The development of settled life was never taken from them, given the wealth and size of the country, this was never necessary – the land that gave them what they needed. Their social organization is developed, but only up to the level of the tribe. Each tribe was a particular piece of land that was lived by its earnings. The natives knew the concept of property does not, instead, they saw themselves as guardians of the country.
With the arrival of the first convict transportation to the British and the settlers that followed after 1788, the saddest chapter in the long history of Aboriginal people. The settlement by the white man had dealt a devastating impact on indigenous people, they were hunted as subhuman. Here, the settlers had a lot of the knowledge that Aboriginal people had about the geography of the country can take advantage. Attempts to relocate tribes conjured up conflicts because of religious ties to their areas were strong.From the beginning of the 18th century estimated 300,000 Aboriginal people had remained in 1947 only 75,000 remained.
Only in the late 1950s was a more humane treatment of the natives on the subject in Australia, however, interrupted by events such as the Maralinga atomic bomb tests by the British, which took place from 1953 to 1964 in the desert of South Australia. A protection or relocation of Aboriginal people living there at that time was not held. In 1994 the government paid $ 13.5 million to Aboriginal people for the indemnification conducted nuclear tests in the desert. Although the contamination of the area and thus the suffering caused by the Aborigines are not outweighed in money, one requires at least a sign of a moral and a rethinking of the beginning of mutual understanding.
1960 Aborigines were granted civil rights (including voting rights), but only in 1967 allowed for a constitutional amendment that they were recorded in the census! By the 1976 adopted “Aboriginal Land Rights Act,” the original owners of significant tribal territories were returned. Them an important sanctuary in 1983, the Uluru (Ayers Rock) was passed. The original inhabitants of the liberal minded politicians and demanded on several occasions promised self-determination is still not confirmed by contract.Also had a signal effect on the 26th May 1998 for the first time celebrated national “Sorry Day”, in which Australian citizens for the crimes committed against the Aborigines apologized. The natives, however, wait until today, in vain, that the government will follow this gesture, also officially apologizes and realizes that her wrong.
The Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander Commission ( ASTIC ), founded in 1980 from the Aboriginal Development Commission ( ADC emerged), promotes the social and economic development of Aboriginal people. Under the motto “helping people help themselves”, this organization funds and low-interest loans available that will help the Aboriginal people for the establishment of livelihoods. Especially in the arts succeeded many, become self-denying, and to prevent the production and sale of didgeridoos and the popular tourist traditional dot paintings of the living. Some shopping centers and cattle ranches are under the direction of Aboriginal people. However, the situation remains critical for the natives: 59 percent have an annual income of less than 12,000 dollars and 55 percent live for the most part by state funds. To work high unemployment, alcoholism, and the reluctance in the economic system of the white man to make the dar. today to be overcome problems also on the training of Aboriginal people is still being debated – it will contain aspects of both cultures.